Pollination in Plants – Part 2

Taking off from where we left the last time when we presented the various factors that determine and enhance Pollination; today we will detail the aspects of the timings and the temperatures that determine and impact pollination.

To do so, let us begin by understanding a little about the  Floral biology of different plants.

Floral biology is a behavioral, structural and physiological study of the flowering plants.

As we said in our previous blog, unsuccessful/no pollination will be the main barrier in protected cultivation for the better yields.

What are the other aspects a gardener should know?

  • One should able to differentiate between male and female flowers
    Flower opening, (this will depend mostly on temperature, light, and RH).
    Example. Brinjal, anthesis starts by 6-8 in summer and it will starts from 9.30 to 11.15 AM in the winter season.
  • Pollen fertility period and anther dehiscence time.
  • Maximum stigma receptivity period etc.

Let’s see the floral biology of some vegetables:

  1. Cucumber

In cucumber, anther dehisce occurs between the temperature range of 20 to 21.5 degree Celsius

Pollen will be viable/able to pollinate stigma up to noon, thereafter by 2 pm it greatly reduces.

Flower will fully open between 6-8 in the morning

Here stigma stays receptive for a very short duration, it needs to pollinate within 2 hours of flower opening.

This is because a rise in temperature causes dryness in the stigmatic surface (due to a reduction in secretion of sticky substances which helps in the holding of pollen grains on to the stigmatic surface)

Hence to get a larger number of fruits in cucumber, pollination should be carried out in the early morning hours between 8 to 8.30 AM maximum.

2.  In bitter gourd, generally, flower opening starts from 4.00 AM to 7.30 AM and stays fully open between 6 to 9.55 AM

Anther dehisce happen within 6.10 to 8.55 AM.

Hence the pollination process needs to be done between 6 to 9 pm in the morning hours.

3. Bottle gourd

The Peculiar thing in bottle gourd is flowers will open completely by 5-7 PM i.e in the evening hours!!

In bottle gourd, anther opening starts by 11 AM and lasts until  2 AM on the same day

The stigma of the flower will be receptive 24 hours before anthesis and 24 hours after anthesis

So, pollination needs to be done in the evening hours before 7 PM

4. Tomato

In tomato male and female parts are present in the same flower, therefore self-pollination will occur and fruit set will happen normally

No need to worry about pollination and fruit set for tomato plants unless you are looking to develop a new variety tomato

Nothing is unproductive!! Nothing is waste!!  Understand the morphology of plants and flowers.
Be aware. And be an informed gardener/grower.

Happy Growing!!


Sometimes you choose your profession. Sometimes God chooses your profession for you. For me it was the latter – The quest to find purpose and expression came in the form of my work. A connection with soil, water, growth and life.

As a kid, I would secretly wish that grown-up life was just like my childhood – running around luscious green fields, feeding the farm cows, chasing and being chased by hens, goats, cousins, the wind in my hair, the rain on my face, the smell of the earth after a rain, and the sound of non-stop laughter.

It was a sad day, when I realised that my wish was just that – a wish! Its been a personal mission for me to recreate the magic of my childhood in any way possible and contribute to clean air, smiling faces, nourishing food, happier homes all with a sense of awe and gratitude. Thus I found my way to CityGreens – here I help people sow, plant, nurture, care and harvest plants. Through plants a better home and life.

When I was not running around and playing with my cousins and farm animals I also managed to do my B.Tech and MBA.

2 thoughts on “Pollination in Plants – Part 2

  • Sana says:

    Why bottle gourd show evening anthesis???

    • Nidhi George says:

      Hi Sana,

      Its morphology is such.

      Team City Greens

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